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June 2024



RQES: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport

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  June 2024 (Volume 95, Issue 2)

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Table of Contents

Free Access Article
Have the Fundamental Movement Skills of U.S. Children Changed?

Zezhao Chen, Weimo Zhu, Dale A. Ulrich & Man Qin

Purpose: By using four national data sets, this study aimed to examine the changes in U.S. children’s fundamental movement skills (FMS) from 1985 to 2019.

Method: Three Tests Gross of Motor Development (TGMD) normative studies, i.e. TGMD-1 (N = 909, male% = 50), TGMD-2 (N = 1143, male% = 50) and TGMD-3 (N = 864, male% = 51), and the TGMD-2 data of the 2012 NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey (NNYFS-2012; raw N = 352, national represented population = 12,509,706, male% = 51) were used for analyses. Each item in TGMD-2/NNYFS and TGMD-3 was carefully examined, and these that did not match to TGMD-1 were deleted. Cohen’s D effect size (ES) was utilized for the difference among year-to-year comparisons.

Result: From 1985 to 2000, FMS in US children of 3–7 years old (90% increase & 10% no change) increased temporarily, but remained stable (17% increase & 83% no change) among 8–10 years old. Between 2000 and 2019, however, U.S. children began to demonstrate a slight/ stable drop in FMS among 3–5 years old (22% decrease & 78% no change), and a distinct decline among 6–10 years old (80% decrease & 20% no change). While children with normal BMI showed the highest FMS score, the direct cause of reduction in FMS is still unknown.

Conclusion: An overall up-and-down change was observed in U.S. children’s FMS between 1985 and 2019, and more longitudinal studies with FMSrelated variables are needed.


Relationship Between Training Load, Neuromuscular Fatigue, and Daily Well-Being in Elite Young Wrestlers

High-Intensity Cycling Training Necessitates Increased Neuromuscular Demand of the Vastus Lateralis During a Fatiguing Contraction

Which Phases of the Stroke Cycle Are Propulsive in Front Crawl Swimming?

Social Network Negativity and Physical Activity: New Longitudinal Evidence for Young and Older Adults 2015-2018

Classroom Teachers’ Perceived Barriers to Implementing Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs (TPB- CSPAP): Instrument Development

Kinesiologists in Clinical Exercise Interventional Research for Stroke and Coronary Artery Disease: A Scoping Review

Relationship of Testosterone, LH, Estradiol, IGF-1, and SHBG with Physical Performance of Master Athletes

About the Predictive Value of a 3D Multiple Object Tracking Device for Talent Identification in Elite Ice Hockey Players

Relative Age Effects and Self-Organized Sport Practices Among Adults

Activity-Induced Pain as a Predictor of Sedentary Behavior Among Midlife Adults

Factors Associated with Children’s Physical Activity During Youth Soccer Practices

Eight Weeks of Physical Training Decreases 2 Years of DNA Methylation Age of Sedentary Women

Bone Mineral Density in Mountain, Road Cyclists and Untrained Controls: Exercise, Diet and Hormones

Identification of EIMD Level Differences Between Long- and Short Head of Biceps Brachii Using Echo Intensity and GLCM Texture Features

A 5-Year Analysis of Age, Stature and Armspan in Mixed Martial Arts

Visually-Induced Motor Imagery Effects on Motor Adaptation to Reverse Steering Cycling. A Randomized Controlled Trial

Acute Effects of a Practical Blood Flow Restriction Device During Swimming Exercise

The Reliability of a Single-Trial Measurement of Maximal Accumulated Oxygen Deficit Determined via Perceptually-Regulated Exercise

The Relationship Between Motor Competence Physical Activity Cardiorespiratory Fitness and BMI in UK Adolescents

Associations Between Object Control Skills and Cognitive Functions in Boys, Younger and Older Men: A Cross-Sectional Study

Neuromuscular but Not Technical Performance is Affected by Time-of-Day in Semiprofessional, Female Basketball Players

Situational Interest within the Reciprocal Teaching Style: Roles of Dyad Composition and Students’ Personal Variables

Neuromuscular Fatigue after Small-Sided Games in Wheelchair Basketball Players with and without Spinal Cord Injury

Speed Effects on the Accuracy of Heart Rate as Oxygen-Uptake Indicator in Short-Distance Shuttle Running

Self-Controlled Video Feedback Facilitates the Learning of Tactical Skills in Tennis

Caffeine Supplementation Effects on Concurrent Training Performance in Resistance-Trained Men: A Double-Blind Placebo-Controlled Crossover Study

Research Notes

The Effectiveness of Physical Activity Policies in Center-Based Childcare: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

An iSOPARC Case Study of Physical Activity at a Pop-Up Park